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  Gail Model for 5 Year Risk of Breast Cancer in Black Women (2007)

Menarche Age at menarche ≥14 years old (1.00)

Age at menarche <14 years old (1.31)
Num Biops
Age FLB Num Rels
Atyp Hyper No biopsies (1.00)

At least one biopsy and no atypical hyperplasia found in any biopsy specimen (0.93)

No atypical hyperplasia found and hyperplasia status unknown for at least one biopsy specimen (1.00)

Atypical hyperplasia found in at least one biopsy specimen (1.82)
Baseline Risk For Age

Rel Risk  
Five Year Risk  
Decimal Precision  

Include literature references: Yes   No
  • Be sure to go through all of the pull-down choices. Some select more than one linked risk factors (see below.)
  • The Num Biops term refers to the number of prior breast biopsies performed. It is linked to the Age at Counseling.
  • The Age FLB Num Rels term refers to the subject's age when she had her first live birth. It is linked to the number of her relatives that have been diagnosed with breast cancer.

Equations used
RelRisk = Menarche * NumBiops * AgeFLBNumRels * AtypHyper
FiveYearRisk = RelRisk * BaselineRiskForAge


Calculation Details and Variables
  • Equation parameters such as Menarche, have two or more discrete values that may be used in the calculation. The numbers in the parentheses, e.g. (1.00), represent the values that will be used.

  1. Gail MH, Costantino JP, Pee D, et al. Projecting individualized absolute invasive breast cancer risk in African American women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Dec 5;99(23):1782-92. Epub 2007 Nov 27. PubMed ID: 18042936 PubMed Logo
  2. Gail MH, Constantino JP, Bryant J, et al. Weighing the Risks and Benefits of Tamoxifen Treatment for Preventing Breast Cancer. J. National Cancer Institute. 1999; V91, #21, pages 1829-1846. PubMed ID: 10547390 PubMed Logo
  3. Costantino JP, Gail MH, Pee D, et al. Validation studies for models projecting the risk of invasive and total breast cancer incidence. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Sep 15;91(18):1541-8. PubMed ID: 10491430 PubMed Logo
  4. EBMcalc CrossRef: Gail Model (1989 paper)
  5. EBMcalc CrossRef: Odds Ratio and Relative Risk
  6. EBMcalc CrossRef: Breast Cancer Local Recurrence Risk


Associated ICD10-CM Codes
   C50.919Malignant neoplasm of unspecified site of unspecified female breast
   C50.819Malignant neoplasm of overlapping sites of unspecified female breast
   N63Unspecified lump in breast
   Z85.3Personal history of malignant neoplasm of breast
   D49.3Neoplasm of unspecified behavior of breast

Associated ICD9-CM Codes
   239.3Breast neoplasm nos
   V10.3Hx of breast malignancy
   611.72Lump or mass in breast
   174.8Malign neopl breast nec
   174.9Malign neopl breast nos

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