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  COVID-19 and the Prognostic Nutrition Index (PNI)

Absolute Lymphocyte Count  

Important: Inputs must be complete to perform calculation.

Decimal Precision  

  PNI Interpretation

PNI <43.7: In-hospital mortality odds ratio 12.2
PNI >=43.7 and <=51.4: In-hospital mortality odds ratio 1.5
PNI >51.4: In-hospital mortality odds ratio 1 (index)


  Data action

Include literature references: Yes   No

  • In this calculator, mcg is the abbreviation for micrograms.
  • This calculator represents findings from the literature referenced below. It is important to understand that these findings may not be representative of the experience in your local healthcare system.
  • In-hospital mortality odds ratios were adjusted for covariates.[2]
  • PNI cutoffs predicting in-hospital motalty rage from 36.85 (sensitivity 70.29%, specificity 69.23%)[3] to 42.1 (sensitivity 81.8%, specificity 72%).[2]

Equations used
PNI = (10 * Albumin) + (0.005 * AbsoluteLymphocyteCount)


  1. Onodera T, Goseki N, Kosaki G. Prognostic nutritional index in gastrointestinal surgery of malnourished cancer patients. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi. 1984 Sep;85(9):1001-5. Japanese. PubMed ID: 6438478 PubMed Logo
  2. Cınar T, Hayıroglu Mİ, Cicek V, et al. Is prognostic nutritional index a predictive marker for estimating all-cause in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular risk factors? Heart Lung. 2021 Mar-Apr;50(2):307-312. PubMed ID: 33482433 PubMed Logo
  3. Rashedi S, Keykhaei M, Pazoki M, et al. Clinical significance of prognostic nutrition index in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: Results from single-center experience with systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Clin Pract. 2021 Jul 16. PubMed ID: 34270114 PubMed Logo


Associated Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes [LOINC]
Parameter LOINC's and Suggested Units
Albumin 1751-7 : g/dL      
Absolute Lymphocyte Count 731-0 : x10^3/microL      26474-7 : x10^3/microL      732-8 : x10^3/microL      

This material contains content from LOINC (http://loinc.org). LOINC is copyright © 1995-2023, Regenstrief Institute, Inc. and the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) Committee and is available at no cost under the license at http://loinc.org/license. LOINC® is a registered United States trademark of Regenstrief Institute, Inc.

Associated ICD10-CM Codes
   J12.9Viral pneumonia, unspecified
   J12.89Other viral pneumonia


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